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Glass Reinforced Concrete: Guiding The Modern Architecture

Glass reinforced concrete represents a composite material consisting of fine-grained concrete (matrix) and dispersion reinforced with short glass fibers. Thus, glass reinforced concrete (or GRC) combines the typical of the conventional concrete high compressive strength with extreme flexibility and tensility (4-5 times higher than in concrete), strength (10-15 times higher) and frost resistance (more than 300 cycles).

This is an environmentally friendly material that does not contain harmful ingredients and belongs to the category of non-combustible materials. Glass reinforced concrete offers increased waterproofness and a high degree of adhesion to plain concrete, boasting high resistance to cracking at the same time. Easily molded, acquiring complex spatial shapes with GRC is a walk in the park mission, plus the material exactly replicates the tiniest details on the surface. Moreover, GRC products have a small cross-section (ranging from 6 to 20 mm) and are considerably lighter in comparison with the products of conventional concrete.

Apart from the purely functional properties, a noteworthy GRC feature is an increased architectural expression, as well as extraordinary plasticity. It can play a variety of colors and shades, transmit various textures to recreate the most unexpected for stone material shape and form. The magnificent set of properties predefined the leadership in precast-monolithic and other types of construction throughout the world.

GRC bribes the experts with its versatility and diversity of application spheres, from wall panels for building facades and architectural and decorative details to elements of permanent formwork in bridge and anti-noise barriers. In addition, glass reinforced concrete is widely utilised in installing roofing and waterproofing.

Pro Essay Writing Manual

Help yourself with a brief manual on essay writing with all the structural parts pointed out. The document is gladly shared by livepaperhelp.com – a seasoned agency that provides custom writing services.

The introduction

The essay starts from introduction, where the nature and rationale for the selection of the topic is described; the part consists of a number of components associated logically and stylistically. At this stage it is important to formulate a question to which you are going to find the answer.

When working on the introduction answer the following questions: ‘Do I have to give definitions of terms relating to calls made in an essay?’, ‘Why is a topic that I cover is important at the moment?’, ‘What concepts will be involved in my reasoning on theme?’, ‘Can I split a topic into smaller sub-topics?’ For example, when working on the theme of ‘European Post World War Economy’ as a subtopic one can formulate the following question: ‘What are the signs typical of the period for the economy?’ Continue reading

How It Works: Test Rigs Production

The nomenclature of test rigs is extensive enough, and, therefore, the equipment line-up is pretty diverse. Virtually all the manufactured products pass a particular control, characterised by various complexity and applied in serial and mass production. More importance is attached to test rigs in individual, pilot and small-scale production and (air tooling in particular).

A normal test cycle can be divided into three stages. The first stage, test preparation, implies defining of the objectives; selecting or designing the required test equipment and its manufacture; measuring equipment selection; products preparation (locations designed to accommodate the equipment revision); preparing technical documentation. The second stage is about actual test, and the third one is processing experimental data and the test results formulation.

Actual testing

When testing complex products or systems, it is necessary to receive and process a large amount of information on the various parameters (the total number of parameters may equal several thousands of items). The laborious process rests on the shoulders of a large amount of qualified technical workers. Thus, the use of information-measuring systems for automated test rigs is a challenge yet to be leveled.

In addition, during testing the equipment is adjusted (i.e. regulate its parameters), which implies managing the testing process. To perform the operations mentioned above, test rigs are equipped with automated systems.

Natural rigs testing is particularly vital in various researches conduction and upgrades development. Despite the fact that they extend the process of designing, making it more costly at the same time, the procedures guarantee a high level of reliability and optimality of methods used.

Parking Ventilation: The Basics Of Design Explained

The growing demand of both industrial towns and large cities in carports, caused by the high population density in the urban areas, throw designers together with a good number of challenges. The main objectives set to car park ventilation professionals are typically the following:

  • Maintain the acceptable indoor air parameters
  • Ensure decent fire resistance
  • Implement an environment-friendly system

Covered parking facilities are usually located below the ground level and require the installation of mechanical ventilation in nine cases out of ten. Semi-covered parking constructions, as a rule, are comprised of frames with multiple floors, though a roof and exterior walls may be partially or completely absent. This is where a natural or mixed ventilation system can be installed (a combination of natural and mechanical systems can also be installed for sites with a large floor area).

Closed car park ventilation system performs the following functions:

  • Maintains the allowable concentration of carbon monoxide (CO)
  • prevents the formation of explosive concentrations of flammable gases

Parking ventilation

The main factor determining the characteristics of a future parking ventilation system is the approximate number of cars serviced on a daily basis. This number is oftentimes determined by the type of construction, which represents the carport. As a rule, apartment buildings and shopping centers adopt the condition of constant and distributed car use, while the number of moving vehicles varies from 3% to 5% of the total number of cars. The situation is different in parking lots of sports facilities, concert halls, airports and etc. Here, the number of vehicles in simultaneous motion equals 15-20% during peak hours or during the hours that coincide with the beginning or the end of the business day.

Next Gen Roof Coating In Action, Polyshield

Polyshield is a modern, high-performance, sprayed, two component pure polyurea elastomer. The material is based on various amino-polyester resins, amino-resin and MDI prepolymers, providing a flexible, durable and monolithic waterproofing membrane boasting truly efficient resistance to water and chemical activity.

Polyshield is characterised by high abrasion resistance, that’s why it is added into the armory of protective materials as waterproofing and corrosion-resistant coating in heavy and mining industries to prevent abrasive wear.

Polyurea-based Polyshield features

  • 100% solvent-free material
  • Unlike other materials, polyshield offers hydrophobic properties; therefore, it reacts poorly with wet or cold surfaces it is applied to.
  • Larger gel time allows deeper penetration and impregnation.
  • Extreme temperatures resistance (121°C+) with an ability to sustain short 150°C loads.
  • High abrasion resistance
  • Higher strength in comparison with the majority of analogs
  • Class 1 Flammability, National Fire Protection Association USA (NFPA) compliant

Spheres of application

The material has been successfully applied in numerous types of residential and commercial facilities; Polyshield is primarily used for:

  • Protection of steel from abrasion
  • Waterproofing (swimming pools , roof waterproofing, sewage tanks, dams , tunnels, barges and etc.)
  • Replacing or repairing sheet membrane coatings
  • Waterproofing and corrosion protection of steel tanks, silos and pipelines
  • Protective elastomer for polystyrene
  • Protective coating for asbestos cement sheets , lead paint and a range of hazardous materials
  • Protective coating for truck bodies, cars, dump cars; roof coating.

Involved In Geophysics: Professional Responsibilities

Depending on the specialization (exploration, seismology geophysics and etc.), a geophysicist is responsible for various tasks implementation. Thus, a geophysics specialist can conduct the business in a research laboratory equipped with all the bells and whistles as well as in the field, leaving the comfortable office for site exploration. Geophysicists typically visit deserts, mountains and other unusual and hard to reach places; sometimes they have no other choice but to climb the mountains or cross over wild rivers.

Geophysicists are involved in various natural deposits researches, ore, oil and gas exploration, seismic surveys and even borehole drilling. The arsenal of geophysicists includes myriads of tools for surveying with hydrographic, oceanographic, hydrological, meteorological and geophysical instruments among them. Additionally, due to geophysicists’ efforts the measurements of magnetic, electrical and gravitational fields are conducted. In accordance with the results retrieved they draw crustal structure maps, determine the thickness and composition of the ice sheets as well as the origin of rocks.

Geophysicists are also engaged in seismic studies of the Earth’s crust through artificial creation of explosion or seismic waves; the results are analyzed by computer and the appropriate forecasts are made.

In addition to general knowledge of physics and geography geophysics must be aware of geological and geophysical nuances. The specialists must know how to use professional software, plus they must be able to draw maps. In their work geophysicists apply engineering geology knowledge when it comes to dam , bridges, tunnels and large buildings construction.

A Korean-Japanese Discovers The Way For Massive Graphene Production

A group of researchers from Korea and Japan announced they have found a simple way for industrial scale production of two-dimensional graphene film. The neoteric material is more affordable, transparent and durable in comparison with indium tin oxide (ITO), used as a transparent conductor at the moment. Graphene offers immunity to decay effect and incredible lifetime.

The brand-new material represents a carbon layer of only 1 atom in thickness, where carbon atoms form a hexagonal lattice, which reminds of a bee honeycomb. Graphene film was discovered in 2005 by a group of scientists from the University of Manchester; five years since the discovery, it seems that an acceptable way for massive production has finally been found.

It turns out that the graphene can be stabilised using standard roller technology, utilised in the printing of newspapers or magazines. Thus, the hydrocarbon feedstock is precipitated onto a smooth plate made of copper implemented via electroless deposition reaction; the adhesive polymer coating is applied to the surface. Once that is done, a copper substrate is etched and graphene sheets are glued on resealable plastic sheets or other surfaces.

During the experiment, a group of scientists has managed to create a rectangular sheet with a diagonal of 76 cm. The method also allows applying multiple layers of graphene to get a plastic sheet coated with the material, which can be cut into any size for touchscreen production. According to experts, the commercial production of graphene-based devices may be launched in the next 5-7 years.

However, it is believed touchscreen technology is only the beginning: when graphene is shaped into a cylinder form a nanotube can be produced. Therefore, if the manufacturers find a good method for the industrial production of nanotubes, a breakthrough in electronics production can be achieved, guaranteed by 10 nm transistors, operating at phenomenal frequency.

No-Win No-Fee Investment Fund Shut Down

A far famed investment fund with a charging structure functioning under the ‘no win no fee’ principle was shut down as it fails to win over savers. Established in the first quarter of 2011 by Nigel Legge, a proficient and respectable stock picker, The Vinculum Global Equity faces its last days. An affair started by Legge collided with a major finance issue – the former Liontrust headman, the fund has managed to raise as little as 2.5m in euro. Therefore, an economically non-viable enterprise was subjected to a radical measure – shut down.

Three years ago, just when the fund was called into existence, financial experts spoke positively of the fee structure standing in fund service. Thus, Vinculum charged just 0.25pc annually, while a typical cost equaled 1pc per year for fund investments run by professional.

Additionally, Vinculum charged investors an extra of 20pc in case outperformance over stock is registered in comparison with the benchmark in the face of FTSE World Index. Legge explained the fees from a rational customer service point of view, saying that such action is way more reasonable rather than charging for underperformance. A savvy stock picker labeled the policy as a fund management evolution. Unfortunately, the evolution experienced a collapse as the fund contacts its investors, notifying of its closure.

The administrator of Vinculum, Peter Smith, in his letter to investors says that the fund is no longer economically viable, and the intention to shut down the fund is the only reasonable option available at the moment. Thus, February 10 was the day the fund stopped its functioning. It seems that Legge accepted the situation and make the decisive step to avoid possible financial accident claims.

The Benefits of Ultrasonic Cleaning in Distillery Industry

Distillery industry requires particularly close attention to the quality of the components for ​​spirituous beverages production, as well as the quality of glass containers in which they are bottled. The use of modern ultrasound technology allows achieving excellent results in containers cleaning that exceed any quality standards. Therefore, distillery companies can derive juicy benefits from using ultrasound equipment adjusted to particular demands.

Bottle washing machines allow solving one of the most crucial problems in distillery industry – inner surface of glass containers leaching under the influence of alcohol-containing product. This effect occurs because of poor quality glass surface, damaged by incorrect storage of container. Ultrasonic treatment of glass containers in a weak solution of hydrochloric acid at room temperature contributes to a full recovery of the glass surface, if the initial ratio of water resistance does not exceed 0.6 ml of 0.01 N HCl. The quality of the recovered surfaces is confirmed by storing alcoholic solutions for long periods of time under different climatic conditions.

Bottle washing machines – extra advantages

Bottle washing machines are also used for refillable containers cleaning. To remove the salt deposits in the bottle washing machines use acidic solutions, while removing a range of other contaminants implies using alkaline. Implanting ultrasonic cleaning in distillery manufactures contributes to a 100% increase in reusable packaging cleaning and a significant productivity growth.

Ultrasonic Cleaners can significantly intensify the process of extraction, resulting in rapid obtaining of high-quality extracts for the production of alcoholic beverages. An ultrasound effect on the extraction is achieved due to improved hydrodynamic conditions of the process and an increased temperature of the mixture. Another process optimization method lies in ultrasonic modules integration in existing equipment (percolators, extractors and tanks for infusion).

The process of ultrasonic cleaning is also used pharmaceutical, food and fertilizers production industries. Ultrasonic effect helps to retrieve various aqueous, alcoholic, oily solutions, crystalline substances, and thick dry extracts, syrups, pigments, aromatic solutions, disinfectants and etc.

Hilsonic is a shining example of an innovative company that focuses on providing ultrasonic cleaner of quality second to none. Drop in at hilsonic.co.uk to get acquainted with the price-list.

One Of The Most Flourishing Cities in England

Leeds is a prosperous city in the Northern England, West Yorkshire County. Standing on rivers Eyre and Wharf, the city is just 310 km away from the capital. Boasting eco-friendly environment (Yorkshire County is 65% covered with forests), Leeds occupies as little as 400 square kilometers territory and offers dozens of soigne parks and green recreation areas.

The climate in the part of the country where Leeds is located is mostly moderate, characterized by warm winters and cool summers. The city owes such favorable climate to Pennine Chain that protects the fifth city of England in terms of population from excessive humidity thoroughly, enabling the inhabitants to enjoy way dryer air in comparison with other regions. The temperature range typically varies from +3 in January and +15 in August, while the majority of sunny days falls on the period between May and September. Summer period in Leeds is considered to be the driest in Europe.

Surrounding areas

Leeds got its name from the large nearby forest – Loidis, and the first historical references to Leeds as a settlement have been discovered in the works of the English monk, dating back to the beginning of the 8th century. Since its very early days Leeds has been an extremely attractive region for real estate investments due to comfortable climate and a relatively safe location. Frankly speaking, the fate and history strongly favored Leeds. Initially, a ​​4 square kilometers area has grown to 40,000 square kilometers in just a couple of decades. The devastating expedition of William the Conqueror spared the area, because Leeds host was acquainted with the monarch personally and found himself among the faithful vassals. Therefore, the entire population of Leeds and all its buildings remained intact. Today you can enjoy the picturesque architectural scenes of Leeds with old houses erected in the beginning of the 11th century.

The history of the city

Another interesting historical fact is that Richard II was detained after the coup in the castle of Leeds. Economic development of the city at the beginning of its existence grew exponentially due to its advantageous location at the crossing of the river Ayr. Leeds city treasury was constantly replenished with taxes for overcoming the river at this point. However, in the middle ages of Norman dynasty domination the city stopped flourishing. As the population kept on increasing, more wooden houses were built, whereas an overwhelming majority of homes in those days were built of stone.

When the Tudors came to power an economic growth experienced a second birth: it took several decades for the new rulers to restore the former glory. A series of manufacturing transformations has resulted in a shift from agriculture to tailoring, and the products have managed to find a ready market. The income boost gave birth to the first educational institution of Leeds.

Visiting Leeds

Leeds provides you with numerous attractions: from ancient architectural complexes to brand new trading centers, trendy outlets, night clubs and golf courses. You will hardly experience any accommodation issue as there are dozens of Hotels in Leeds for any taste, however, if you are looking for a more cost efficient option, you will definitely appreciate a wide selection of Serviced Apartments Leeds.

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