Depending on the specialization (exploration, seismology geophysics and etc.), a geophysicist is responsible for various tasks implementation. Thus, a geophysics specialist can conduct the business in a research laboratory equipped with all the bells and whistles as well as in the field, leaving the comfortable office for site exploration. Geophysicists typically visit deserts, mountains and other unusual and hard to reach places; sometimes they have no other choice but to climb the mountains or cross over wild rivers.
Geophysicists are involved in various natural deposits researches, ore, oil and gas exploration, seismic surveys and even borehole drilling. The arsenal of geophysicists includes myriads of tools for surveying with hydrographic, oceanographic, hydrological, meteorological and geophysical instruments among them. Additionally, due to geophysicists’ efforts the measurements of magnetic, electrical and gravitational fields are conducted. In accordance with the results retrieved they draw crustal structure maps, determine the thickness and composition of the ice sheets as well as the origin of rocks.
Geophysicists are also engaged in seismic studies of the Earth’s crust through artificial creation of explosion or seismic waves; the results are analyzed by computer and the appropriate forecasts are made.
In addition to general knowledge of physics and geography geophysics must be aware of geological and geophysical nuances. The specialists must know how to use professional software, plus they must be able to draw maps. In their work geophysicists apply engineering geology knowledge when it comes to dam , bridges, tunnels and large buildings construction.
A group of researchers from Korea and Japan announced they have found a simple way for industrial scale production of two-dimensional graphene film. The neoteric material is more affordable, transparent and durable in comparison with indium tin oxide (ITO), used as a transparent conductor at the moment. Graphene offers immunity to decay effect and incredible lifetime.
The brand-new material represents a carbon layer of only 1 atom in thickness, where carbon atoms form a hexagonal lattice, which reminds of a bee honeycomb. Graphene film was discovered in 2005 by a group of scientists from the University of Manchester; five years since the discovery, it seems that an acceptable way for massive production has finally been found.
It turns out that the graphene can be stabilised using standard roller technology, utilised in the printing of newspapers or magazines. Thus, the hydrocarbon feedstock is precipitated onto a smooth plate made of copper implemented via electroless deposition reaction; the adhesive polymer coating is applied to the surface. Once that is done, a copper substrate is etched and graphene sheets are glued on resealable plastic sheets or other surfaces.
During the experiment, a group of scientists has managed to create a rectangular sheet with a diagonal of 76 cm. The method also allows applying multiple layers of graphene to get a plastic sheet coated with the material, which can be cut into any size for touchscreen production. According to experts, the commercial production of graphene-based devices may be launched in the next 5-7 years.
However, it is believed touchscreen technology is only the beginning: when graphene is shaped into a cylinder form a nanotube can be produced. Therefore, if the manufacturers find a good method for the industrial production of nanotubes, a breakthrough in electronics production can be achieved, guaranteed by 10 nm transistors, operating at phenomenal frequency.