Wind, an inexhaustible source of clean energy, is becoming more widely used at strategic level, rapidly gaining public support at the same time. Wind power has been used since ancient Babylon (wetlands drainage), Egypt (grain grinding) and China and Manchuria (pumping water from the rice fields) times. In Europe, this technology was introduced in the XII century, while the adoption of truly modern approaches started only in the XX century.
Wind power can operate in areas with wind speeds above 4.5 m/s level. Wind power stations can either conduct their business within a network of an existing plant or represent a stand-alone construction. The so-called ‘wind farms’, the areas where a number of pieces of wind collection equipment is concentrated and functioning as an entire system, are also gaining momentum due to noteworthy economic feasibility.
The greatest share of wind energy production belongs to the United States and Europe (Denmark, Germany, Great Britain and the Netherlands in particular). For long years the US has been holding the leadership among the most powerful wind plants in the world, Roscoe Wind Farm, generating impressive 781 MW of power. Another interesting example is Aeolus II wind farm that operates at Wilhelmshaven, Germany and produces 7 million kw/h of energy annually, providing about 2 million of households with electricity. Currently, there are nearly 23,000 active turbines installed in the world.
The ins and outs
Despite the mass production, the cost of construction of a modern wind power is still far from being affordable. However, it should be fairly noted that its operation cost is almost negligible. Environmental and economic benefits largely depend on the correct location; it requires a detailed and comprehensive analysis of both technical, environmental as well as financial aspects. Wind energy meets all the conditions necessary for its identity as environmentally friendly method of energy production. Its main advantages are:
- No pollution – the production of energy from wind neither results in emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere nor entails waste generation.
- Wind power is renewable, inexhaustible source of energy, allowing to save on fuel consumption, as well as on the process of its production and transportation.
- The area in the vicinity of a plant can be utilized for agricultural purposes with no restrictions.
- Stable costs per unit of energy is produced, plus the method contributes into the growth of economic competitiveness in comparison with conventional energy sources.
- The minimum transmission loss of energy – wind power plants can be built directly by the consumer, and in remote locations, which in the case of conventional energy require special connection.
- Easy maintenance, easy installation, low maintenance and operating costs.
Cheap to maintain
Once the tiresome process of manufacturing and installing is accomplished, the only thing the company has to take care of is to initial regular equipment checks. So who are these guys? Normally, farm owners either have in-house engineers or cooperate with seasoned providers, such as Granada Material Handling, offering a full array of wind turbine services as well as provides assistance with wind turbine inspections.
Flange is a device designed for seamless connection of pumps, pipes and valves. This connection method provides an easy way to modifying, cleaning or inspecting the system. Usually, the flanges come with welded or threaded connection; however, the market offers custom stainless steel flanges solutions as well – the firms like AlexanderComley produce both standard and custom-made flanges that meet virtually any requirements.
Flange mounting itself implies using bolts; impermeability is achieved due to gaskets. Industrial flanges are constructed from various materials: with processed surfaces in store, flanges are made from cast iron, stainless steel, brass, plastic, bronze and etc. In addition, flanges, just like pipes and fittings for special application, often have an internal coating of a different quality in comparison with external coating. According to AlexanderComley, bespoke flanges, tubesheet and butt weld fittings uk are oftentimes manufactured from the same material used in the production of pipes.
O-ring and gasket position depends on the implementation of surface and shape of the flange. The most commonly used types are as follows: surface with a projection; groove for the O-ring; flat surface; surface with internal and external thread and tongue and groove joints. It is important that the flange surface are characterised by minor roughness, to ensure the highest quality of the seal. The most widespread types of surface processing are roughing, spiral notching, concentric grooving and smoothing.
To provide the necessary tight flanged connection using gaskets is obligatory. An average gasket is a ring or pressured plates that used for water-resistant mounting. Gaskets are manufactured at extreme temperatures and pressures and are made of non-metallic, semi-metallic and metallic materials. The principle of operation is simple enough: a gasket is clamped between two flanges, and thereby fills the microscopic unevenness and the surface area to prevent leakage of gases and liquids. Continue reading
Glass reinforced concrete represents a composite material consisting of fine-grained concrete (matrix) and dispersion reinforced with short glass fibers. Thus, glass reinforced concrete (or GRC) combines the typical of the conventional concrete high compressive strength with extreme flexibility and tensility (4-5 times higher than in concrete), strength (10-15 times higher) and frost resistance (more than 300 cycles).
This is an environmentally friendly material that does not contain harmful ingredients and belongs to the category of non-combustible materials. Glass reinforced concrete offers increased waterproofness and a high degree of adhesion to plain concrete, boasting high resistance to cracking at the same time. Easily molded, acquiring complex spatial shapes with GRC is a walk in the park mission, plus the material exactly replicates the tiniest details on the surface. Moreover, GRC products have a small cross-section (ranging from 6 to 20 mm) and are considerably lighter in comparison with the products of conventional concrete. Continue reading
The growing demand of both industrial towns and large cities in carports, caused by the high population density in the urban areas, throw designers together with a good number of challenges. The main objectives set to car park ventilation professionals are typically the following:
- Maintain the acceptable indoor air parameters
- Ensure decent fire resistance
- Implement an environment-friendly system
Covered parking facilities are usually located below the ground level and require the installation of mechanical ventilation in nine cases out of ten. Semi-covered parking constructions, as a rule, are comprised of frames with multiple floors, though a roof and exterior walls may be partially or completely absent. This is where a natural or mixed ventilation system can be installed (a combination of natural and mechanical systems can also be installed for sites with a large floor area).
Closed car park ventilation system performs the following functions:
- Maintains the allowable concentration of carbon monoxide (CO)
- prevents the formation of explosive concentrations of flammable gases
The main factor determining the characteristics of a future parking ventilation system is the approximate number of cars serviced on a daily basis. This number is oftentimes determined by the type of construction, which represents the carport. As a rule, apartment buildings and shopping centers adopt the condition of constant and distributed car use, while the number of moving vehicles varies from 3% to 5% of the total number of cars. The situation is different in parking lots of sports facilities, concert halls, airports and etc. Here, the number of vehicles in simultaneous motion equals 15-20% during peak hours or during the hours that coincide with the beginning or the end of the business day.
Polyshield is a modern, high-performance, sprayed, two component pure polyurea elastomer. The material is based on various amino-polyester resins, amino-resin and MDI prepolymers, providing a flexible, durable and monolithic waterproofing membrane boasting truly efficient resistance to water and chemical activity.
Polyshield is characterised by high abrasion resistance, that’s why it is added into the armory of protective materials as waterproofing and corrosion-resistant coating in heavy and mining industries to prevent abrasive wear.
Polyurea-based Polyshield features
- 100% solvent-free material
- Unlike other materials, polyshield offers hydrophobic properties; therefore, it reacts poorly with wet or cold surfaces it is applied to.
- Larger gel time allows deeper penetration and impregnation.
- Extreme temperatures resistance (121°C+) with an ability to sustain short 150°C loads.
- High abrasion resistance
- Higher strength in comparison with the majority of analogs
- Class 1 Flammability, National Fire Protection Association USA (NFPA) compliant
Spheres of application
The material has been successfully applied in numerous types of residential and commercial facilities; Polyshield is primarily used for:
- Protection of steel from abrasion
- Waterproofing (swimming pools , roof waterproofing, sewage tanks, dams , tunnels, barges and etc.)
- Replacing or repairing sheet membrane coatings
- Waterproofing and corrosion protection of steel tanks, silos and pipelines
- Protective elastomer for polystyrene
- Protective coating for asbestos cement sheets , lead paint and a range of hazardous materials
- Protective coating for truck bodies, cars, dump cars; roof coating.
Depending on the specialization (exploration, seismology geophysics and etc.), a geophysicist is responsible for various tasks implementation. Thus, a geophysics specialist can conduct the business in a research laboratory equipped with all the bells and whistles as well as in the field, leaving the comfortable office for site exploration. Geophysicists typically visit deserts, mountains and other unusual and hard to reach places; sometimes they have no other choice but to climb the mountains or cross over wild rivers.
Geophysicists are involved in various natural deposits researches, ore, oil and gas exploration, seismic surveys and even borehole drilling. The arsenal of geophysicists includes myriads of tools for surveying with hydrographic, oceanographic, hydrological, meteorological and geophysical instruments among them. Additionally, due to geophysicists’ efforts the measurements of magnetic, electrical and gravitational fields are conducted. In accordance with the results retrieved they draw crustal structure maps, determine the thickness and composition of the ice sheets as well as the origin of rocks.
Geophysicists are also engaged in seismic studies of the Earth’s crust through artificial creation of explosion or seismic waves; the results are analyzed by computer and the appropriate forecasts are made.
In addition to general knowledge of physics and geography geophysics must be aware of geological and geophysical nuances. The specialists must know how to use professional software, plus they must be able to draw maps. In their work geophysicists apply engineering geology knowledge when it comes to dam , bridges, tunnels and large buildings construction.
A group of researchers from Korea and Japan announced they have found a simple way for industrial scale production of two-dimensional graphene film. The neoteric material is more affordable, transparent and durable in comparison with indium tin oxide (ITO), used as a transparent conductor at the moment. Graphene offers immunity to decay effect and incredible lifetime.
A far famed investment fund with a charging structure functioning under the ‘no win no fee’ principle was shut down as it fails to win over savers. Established in the first quarter of 2011 by Nigel Legge, a proficient and respectable stock picker, The Vinculum Global Equity faces its last days. An affair started by Legge collided with a major finance issue – the former Liontrust headman, the fund has managed to raise as little as 2.5m in euro. Therefore, an economically non-viable enterprise was subjected to a radical measure – shut down.
Three years ago, just when the fund was called into existence, financial experts spoke positively of the fee structure standing in fund service. Thus, Vinculum charged just 0.25pc annually, while a typical cost equaled 1pc per year for fund investments run by professional.
Additionally, Vinculum charged investors an extra of 20pc in case outperformance over stock is registered in comparison with the benchmark in the face of FTSE World Index. Legge explained the fees from a rational customer service point of view, saying that such action is way more reasonable rather than charging for underperformance. A savvy stock picker labeled the policy as a fund management evolution. Unfortunately, the evolution experienced a collapse as the fund contacts its investors, notifying of its closure.
The administrator of Vinculum, Peter Smith, in his letter to investors says that the fund is no longer economically viable, and the intention to shut down the fund is the only reasonable option available at the moment. Thus, February 10 was the day the fund stopped its functioning. It seems that Legge accepted the situation and make the decisive step to avoid possible financial accident claims.
Distillery industry requires particularly close attention to the quality of the components for spirituous beverages production, as well as the quality of glass containers in which they are bottled. The use of modern ultrasound technology allows achieving excellent results in containers cleaning that exceed any quality standards. Therefore, distillery companies can derive juicy benefits from using ultrasound equipment adjusted to particular demands.
Bottle washing machines allow solving one of the most crucial problems in distillery industry – inner surface of glass containers leaching under the influence of alcohol-containing product. This effect occurs because of poor quality glass surface, damaged by incorrect storage of container. Ultrasonic treatment of glass containers in a weak solution of hydrochloric acid at room temperature contributes to a full recovery of the glass surface, if the initial ratio of water resistance does not exceed 0.6 ml of 0.01 N HCl. The quality of the recovered surfaces is confirmed by storing alcoholic solutions for long periods of time under different climatic conditions.
Bottle washing machines – extra advantages
Bottle washing machines are also used for refillable containers cleaning. To remove the salt deposits in the bottle washing machines use acidic solutions, while removing a range of other contaminants implies using alkaline. Implanting ultrasonic cleaning in distillery manufactures contributes to a 100% increase in reusable packaging cleaning and a significant productivity growth.
Ultrasonic Cleaners can significantly intensify the process of extraction, resulting in rapid obtaining of high-quality extracts for the production of alcoholic beverages. An ultrasound effect on the extraction is achieved due to improved hydrodynamic conditions of the process and an increased temperature of the mixture. Another process optimization method lies in ultrasonic modules integration in existing equipment (percolators, extractors and tanks for infusion).
The process of ultrasonic cleaning is also used pharmaceutical, food and fertilizers production industries. Ultrasonic effect helps to retrieve various aqueous, alcoholic, oily solutions, crystalline substances, and thick dry extracts, syrups, pigments, aromatic solutions, disinfectants and etc.
Hilsonic is a shining example of an innovative company that focuses on providing ultrasonic cleaner of quality second to none. Drop in at hilsonic.co.uk to get acquainted with the price-list.
Day after day more and more online casinos enter the gambling battlefield, boasting more neoteric graphics and miraculous winnings, promising an unforgettable adventure. But what stands behind the success of online gambling hubs?
Availability & wide selection
Thanks to the rapid development of web technologies, most of our compatriots can access virtually any casino in the world in a single click. In order to play slot machines, many had to travel long distances; moreover, not every house it is will necessarily offer a large selection of slot machines. Fortunately for many, a decent online casino provides a huge selection of games of chance: from the old good slots to the way-out live roulette. In fact, the rigid competition (there are about 13,4 ml. results on the exact keyword ‘online casino’ in US) induces casino owners gather as many game types as possible to retain the audience.
In concordance with the research provided by DGFEV, a German gambling review hub, nearly 80% of individuals under the age of 21 has tasted the experience of gambling at least once. Continue reading