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Category: ECO

Parking Ventilation: The Basics Of Design Explained

The growing demand of both industrial towns and large cities in carports, caused by the high population density in the urban areas, throw designers together with a good number of challenges. The main objectives set to car park ventilation professionals are typically the following:

  • Maintain the acceptable indoor air parameters
  • Ensure decent fire resistance
  • Implement an environment-friendly system

Covered parking facilities are usually located below the ground level and require the installation of mechanical ventilation in nine cases out of ten. Semi-covered parking constructions, as a rule, are comprised of frames with multiple floors, though a roof and exterior walls may be partially or completely absent. This is where a natural or mixed ventilation system can be installed (a combination of natural and mechanical systems can also be installed for sites with a large floor area).

Closed car park ventilation system performs the following functions:

  • Maintains the allowable concentration of carbon monoxide (CO)
  • prevents the formation of explosive concentrations of flammable gases

Parking ventilation

The main factor determining the characteristics of a future parking ventilation system is the approximate number of cars serviced on a daily basis. This number is oftentimes determined by the type of construction, which represents the carport. As a rule, apartment buildings and shopping centers adopt the condition of constant and distributed car use, while the number of moving vehicles varies from 3% to 5% of the total number of cars. The situation is different in parking lots of sports facilities, concert halls, airports and etc. Here, the number of vehicles in simultaneous motion equals 15-20% during peak hours or during the hours that coincide with the beginning or the end of the business day.

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The Basics Of Scrap Metal

A solid scrap metal dealer is highly likely to buy virtually any kind of scrap metal; however, if you are looking to plunge into the business, undergoing a basic training is obligatory. Let’s start from the very beginning – the definition.

The large class of scrap metals is typically represented by a variety of obsolete metal products, collected for further processing. Scrap metals are subjected to melting procedure, and once this sub-mission is accomplished, the materials enter the manufacturing line iteratively. Generally, scrap metal is characterized by the types of metal it consists of: the predominant material in the overall composition of the scrap plays the decisive role. Furthermore, scrap metal is divided into particular categories in accordance with physical characteristics and chemical composition, the content of carbon or the amount of alloying elements.

Therefore, there are several categories to steel and iron scrap metals (stainless steel, cast iron, etc.), non-ferrous metals (copper scrap and alloys, such as brass, bronze, red brass), aluminum and its alloys, titanium and titanium alloys (ship and aircraft wastes), magnesium scrap (waste aircrafts), lead (batteries, cables); semiconductor scrap (provided by electronics industry); rare scrap metals (alloys provided by high-tech industries).

Precious scrap metal category is comprised of gold, silver and platinum metals. Jewelry, catalysts, batteries, crucibles and chemical apparatus constitute the greater part of precious scrap metals class. Since metal ore is identified as irreplaceable mineral, the idea of ​​recycling and further processing despite of certain financial costs and the need for additional production facilities, is absolutely crucial for both the environment and the economy as a whole.

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