A significant portion of municipal solid waste, even in the most advanced methods of collecting and sorting waste is subjected to high temperature procession with a primary focus on combustion in mechanical grate furnaces. Prepared in collaboration with Simdean specialists, largely applying solutions, the article analyses the experience of using plasma technology for the processing of various types of waste. It is noted that to process solid waste disposal technologies are hardly used because of the higher maintenance and operating costs compared with layer combustion. The environmental benefits plasma gasification method are also obvious.
In recent decades, EU has experienced a substantial increase in the trend of municipal solid waste (MSW) increase, the residential sector. In this regard, under constant environmental degradation solution to the problem of solid waste recycling has become paramount.
The complexity of the solution of this problem is due to the need to use complicated capital-intensive equipment and the difficulty of solving a multifactor problem of environmental friendliness and economic feasibility of selecting a specific technology for waste disposal. Considerable attention is paid to this problem solving and public authorities: the focus of waste management are prevention and reduction of waste, the development of infrastructure for their treatment and toughening the bans on the dumping of wastes that have not been sorted and processed.
As far as scandinavian experience goes, to solve the problem of solid waste disposal housing involves all methods of recycling of solid waste, including recycling through separate collection, sorting and composting. However, thermal processing of solid waste to generate electric and thermal energy is the main and final stage on the way to solve the problem of complex sanitary cleaning of waste. And in cities, especially large ones, for now and for the long term thermal methods of play and will play a key role in solving the problem of solid waste. Continue reading
Wind, an inexhaustible source of clean energy, is becoming more widely used at strategic level, rapidly gaining public support at the same time. Wind power has been used since ancient Babylon (wetlands drainage), Egypt (grain grinding) and China and Manchuria (pumping water from the rice fields) times. In Europe, this technology was introduced in the XII century, while the adoption of truly modern approaches started only in the XX century.
Wind power can operate in areas with wind speeds above 4.5 m/s level. Wind power stations can either conduct their business within a network of an existing plant or represent a stand-alone construction. The so-called ‘wind farms’, the areas where a number of pieces of wind collection equipment is concentrated and functioning as an entire system, are also gaining momentum due to noteworthy economic feasibility.
The greatest share of wind energy production belongs to the United States and Europe (Denmark, Germany, Great Britain and the Netherlands in particular). For long years the US has been holding the leadership among the most powerful wind plants in the world, Roscoe Wind Farm, generating impressive 781 MW of power. Another interesting example is Aeolus II wind farm that operates at Wilhelmshaven, Germany and produces 7 million kw/h of energy annually, providing about 2 million of households with electricity. Currently, there are nearly 23,000 active turbines installed in the world.
The ins and outs
Despite the mass production, the cost of construction of a modern wind power is still far from being affordable. However, it should be fairly noted that its operation cost is almost negligible. Environmental and economic benefits largely depend on the correct location; it requires a detailed and comprehensive analysis of both technical, environmental as well as financial aspects. Wind energy meets all the conditions necessary for its identity as environmentally friendly method of energy production. Its main advantages are:
- No pollution – the production of energy from wind neither results in emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere nor entails waste generation.
- Wind power is renewable, inexhaustible source of energy, allowing to save on fuel consumption, as well as on the process of its production and transportation.
- The area in the vicinity of a plant can be utilized for agricultural purposes with no restrictions.
- Stable costs per unit of energy is produced, plus the method contributes into the growth of economic competitiveness in comparison with conventional energy sources.
- The minimum transmission loss of energy – wind power plants can be built directly by the consumer, and in remote locations, which in the case of conventional energy require special connection.
- Easy maintenance, easy installation, low maintenance and operating costs.
Cheap to maintain
Once the tiresome process of manufacturing and installing is accomplished, the only thing the company has to take care of is to initial regular equipment checks. So who are these guys? Normally, farm owners either have in-house engineers or cooperate with seasoned providers, such as Granada Material Handling, offering a full array of wind turbine services as well as provides assistance with wind turbine inspections.
The growing demand of both industrial towns and large cities in carports, caused by the high population density in the urban areas, throw designers together with a good number of challenges. The main objectives set to car park ventilation professionals are typically the following:
- Maintain the acceptable indoor air parameters
- Ensure decent fire resistance
- Implement an environment-friendly system
Covered parking facilities are usually located below the ground level and require the installation of mechanical ventilation in nine cases out of ten. Semi-covered parking constructions, as a rule, are comprised of frames with multiple floors, though a roof and exterior walls may be partially or completely absent. This is where a natural or mixed ventilation system can be installed (a combination of natural and mechanical systems can also be installed for sites with a large floor area).
Closed car park ventilation system performs the following functions:
- Maintains the allowable concentration of carbon monoxide (CO)
- prevents the formation of explosive concentrations of flammable gases
The main factor determining the characteristics of a future parking ventilation system is the approximate number of cars serviced on a daily basis. This number is oftentimes determined by the type of construction, which represents the carport. As a rule, apartment buildings and shopping centers adopt the condition of constant and distributed car use, while the number of moving vehicles varies from 3% to 5% of the total number of cars. The situation is different in parking lots of sports facilities, concert halls, airports and etc. Here, the number of vehicles in simultaneous motion equals 15-20% during peak hours or during the hours that coincide with the beginning or the end of the business day.
A solid scrap metal dealer is highly likely to buy virtually any kind of scrap metal; however, if you are looking to plunge into the business, undergoing a basic training is obligatory. Let’s start from the very beginning – the definition.
The large class of scrap metals is typically represented by a variety of obsolete metal products, collected for further processing. Scrap metals are subjected to melting procedure, and once this sub-mission is accomplished, the materials enter the manufacturing line iteratively. Generally, scrap metal is characterized by the types of metal it consists of: the predominant material in the overall composition of the scrap plays the decisive role. Furthermore, scrap metal is divided into particular categories in accordance with physical characteristics and chemical composition, the content of carbon or the amount of alloying elements.
Therefore, there are several categories to steel and iron scrap metals (stainless steel, cast iron, etc.), non-ferrous metals (copper scrap and alloys, such as brass, bronze, red brass), aluminum and its alloys, titanium and titanium alloys (ship and aircraft wastes), magnesium scrap (waste aircrafts), lead (batteries, cables); semiconductor scrap (provided by electronics industry); rare scrap metals (alloys provided by high-tech industries).
Precious scrap metal category is comprised of gold, silver and platinum metals. Jewelry, catalysts, batteries, crucibles and chemical apparatus constitute the greater part of precious scrap metals class. Since metal ore is identified as irreplaceable mineral, the idea of recycling and further processing despite of certain financial costs and the need for additional production facilities, is absolutely crucial for both the environment and the economy as a whole.