A significant portion of municipal solid waste, even in the most advanced methods of collecting and sorting waste is subjected to high temperature procession with a primary focus on combustion in mechanical grate furnaces. Prepared in collaboration with Simdean specialists, largely applying solutions, the article analyses the experience of using plasma technology for the processing of various types of waste. It is noted that to process solid waste disposal technologies are hardly used because of the higher maintenance and operating costs compared with layer combustion. The environmental benefits plasma gasification method are also obvious.
In recent decades, EU has experienced a substantial increase in the trend of municipal solid waste (MSW) increase, the residential sector. In this regard, under constant environmental degradation solution to the problem of solid waste recycling has become paramount.
The complexity of the solution of this problem is due to the need to use complicated capital-intensive equipment and the difficulty of solving a multifactor problem of environmental friendliness and economic feasibility of selecting a specific technology for waste disposal. Considerable attention is paid to this problem solving and public authorities: the focus of waste management are prevention and reduction of waste, the development of infrastructure for their treatment and toughening the bans on the dumping of wastes that have not been sorted and processed.
As far as scandinavian experience goes, to solve the problem of solid waste disposal housing involves all methods of recycling of solid waste, including recycling through separate collection, sorting and composting. However, thermal processing of solid waste to generate electric and thermal energy is the main and final stage on the way to solve the problem of complex sanitary cleaning of waste. And in cities, especially large ones, for now and for the long term thermal methods of play and will play a key role in solving the problem of solid waste.
From a wide variety of proposed and approved methods of thermal processing of solid waste the most widely used method of direct combustion in furnaces layered with energy recovery and multi-gas purification. Currently in Europe successfully operates more than 660 companies relying on this technology. It should be noted that according to the European guide for the best available incineration techniques for the thermal recycling of MSW these methods are considered to be the most appropriate from the perspective of a minimum impact on the environment on set of factors such as air emissions (including emitted odor), waters dumping, the formation of solid residues after combustion, noise and vibration technology, consumption of raw materials (reagents) and etc.
In the EU, the production of energy from waste is considered as one of the most promising directions in the field of environmental protection. Nevertheless, a variety of foreign and domestic firms periodically offered, and other thermal processing technology, supposedly more efficient, more environmentally friendly, particularly in terms of the so-called ‘dioxin threat’.